Ph.D. Cornell University, Government, 2006.
M.A. Cornell University, Government, 2004.
M.A. Tel Aviv University, Security Studies, 1999.
B.A. Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Middle East Studies, 1992.
Honors, Awards and Fellowships
2017: Smith Richardson Foundation Grant for the Project “After the Caliphate.”
2014: Research Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
2010: Choice Magazine’s Outstanding Academic Title Award for the book “Combating Jihadims: American Hegemony and Interstate Cooperation in the War on Terrorism”
2009: Center for Globalization and Global Citizenship, Haverford College, Faculty Research Award.
2008 -2020: Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Research Institute.
2006-07: Post-Doctoral Fellowship, Department of Political Science, Tel Aviv University.
2000: Tzechick award for the best study on Israeli Security, awarded by the Jaffa Center for Strategic Studies (INSS), for the M.A. thesis “Israeli Deterrence in the Gulf War.”
1997: Excellence scholarship, the Security Studies Program, Tel Aviv University.
- Haverford College. Courses taught: International Politics; International Security; Evolution of the Jihadi Movement; Armed Nonstate Actors; Politics in the State System; International Relations Theory: Conflict and the Middle East; Introduction to Terrorism Studies; War on Terrorism; Israeli Politics and Society; Technology and International Security; Short of War: Deterrence and Compellence in International Politics.
- Visiting Associate Professor, IBEI (Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals). Course taught: Terrorism and Counterterrorism
- Instructor, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Course taught: Strategy in the Middle East.
Terrorism and counter-terrorism; The al-Qaeda Movement, Radical Islamic movements; Hegemony and interstate cooperation; Non-state actor vs. organizing principals to world order; Politics of the Middle East; Religion and international relations; Israel and its messianic Right; Foreign policy; The causes of interstate and intrastate conflict
- Jihadism Constrained: The Limits of Transnational Jihadism and What It Means for Counter-Terrorism (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2019).
- The al-Qaeda Franchise: The Expansion of al-Qaeda and Its Consequences (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
- Combating Jihadism: American Hegemony and Interstate Cooperation in the War on Terrorism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).
- “Terrorism and Protean Power: How Terrorists Navigate Uncertainty.” In Peter Katzenstein and Lucia Seybert, eds., Protean Power: Exploring the Uncertain and Unexpected in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 188-208.
- “Paper Tiger: The Enemy Image of America,” Survival 65:3 (June-July 2023), 1-30. (With Dominic Tierney)
- “Justice, Inequality and Order: The Curious Case of the Jihadi Divine Justice” International Affairs 99:1 (2023), 81-100.
- “Casting Shadow: Founders and the Unique Challenges of a Terrorist Group’s First Leadership Change,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism (2021), DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2021.2018903
- “The Limits of Ideologically-Unlikely Partnerships: Syria’s Support for Jihadi Terrorist Groups,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 46:9 (2023).
- “Ayman al-Zawahiri and the Challenges of Succession in Terrorist Organization,” Terrorism and Political Violence 34:8 (2022), 1826-1845.
- “In Limited Demand: The Other Foreign Volunteers in the Syrian Civil War,” Terrorism and Political Violence 34:4 (2022), 682-705.
- “Why Do jihadi Groups Recruit Foreign Fighters?: The Case of the Islamic State,” Orbis 64:1 (2020), 111-130.
- “The Battle for Algeria: Explaining Organizational Fratricide Among Armed Non-State Actors,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 44:9 (2021), 776-798.
- “The Future of al-Qaeda: Lessons from the Muslim Brotherhood,” Survival 60:2 (2018), 151-178.
- “Israel and Its Messianic Right: Path Dependency and State Authority in International Conflict.” International Studies Quarterly 60:1 (2016), 47-58.
- “Threat Identification and the UN’s 1267 Sanctions Committee.” Terrorism and Political Violence 27:4 (2015), 609-627.
- “State Authority in the Balance: The Israeli State and the Messianic Settler Movement.” International Studies Review 16:4 (December 2014), 499-521.
- “U.S. Strategy in a Transitioning Middle East: Reviving ‘State Responsibility’." Orbis 58:2 (April 2014), 198-211.
- “Al Qaeda and Global Governance: The Constraining Impact of Rigid Ideology.” Terrorism and Political Violence 26:3 (2014), 470-487.
- “God vs. Westphalia: Radical Islamist Movements and the Battle for Organizing the World.” Review of International Studies 38 (2012), 589-613.
- “Al Qaeda’s Franchising Strategy.” Survival 53:3 (May/June 2011), 29-50.
- “Foreign Fighters: Recent Trends.” Orbis 55:2 (Spring 2011), 189-202.
- “Bolstering the State: A Different Perspective on the War on the Jihadi Movement.” International Studies Review 11:4 (December 2009), 663-686.
- “Al Qaeda’s Palestinian Problem.” Survival 51:4 (August/September 2009), 71-86. Reprinted in Paul Cruickshank, ed., Al Qaeda: Critical Concepts in Political Science, Vol. 5 (Oxford: Routledge, 2012).
- “English School American Style: Testing the Preservation-Seeking Quality of the International Society.” European Journal of International Relations 15:2 (June 2009), 291-318.
- “Sovereignty Under Attack: The International Society Meets the al Qaeda Network.” Review of International Studies 31:1 (January 2005), 45-68. Reprinted in Jeffrey Haynes, ed., Religion and Politics: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, Vol. 4 (Oxford: Routledge, 2009).
- “Israeli Self-Defeating Deterrence in the 1991 Gulf War.” Journal of Strategic Studies 26:4 (December 2003), 83-107.
- “Review of Sivan Hirsch-Hoefler and Cas Mudde, The Israeli Settler Movement: Assessing and Explaining Social Movement Success,” Israel Studies Review 37:3 (2022), 164-168.
- “Al-Qaeda Is Being Hollowed to Its Core,” War on the Rocks, February 24, 2021 (with Colin Clarke).
- “Review of Jessie Blackbourn, Danis Kayis, and Nicola McGarrity, Anti-Terrorism Law and Foreign Terrorist Fighters,” Terrorism and Political Violence 34:4 (2022), 877-878.
- “Bound to Fail: Transnational Jihadism and the Aggregation Problem,” War on the Rocks, August 28, 2018.
- “Review of William Polk, Crusade and Jihad.” International Journal of Middle East Studies (Forthcoming).
- “Review of Richard Nielsen, Deadly Clerics.” Middle East Journal 72:4 (2018), 718-720.
- “Review of Marc Sageman, Misunderstanding Terrorism.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 30:5-6 (2017), 588-590.
- “Review of Nahed Artoul Zehr, The War against al-Qaeda: Religion, Policy, and Counter-narratives,” Politics and Religion 10:4 (2017), 927-930.
- “Deviance and Uncertainty in the International System. Review of William J. Brenner, Confounding Powers: Anarchy and International Society from the Assassins to Al Qaeda.” International Studies Review,19:3 (2017), 537-539.
- “Power, Legitimacy, and the Self-Limiting Logic of Terrorism.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, February 24, 2017.
- “Al Qaeda’s Ruthless Pragmatism Makes It More Dangerous Than Islamic State.” Reuters, October 27, 2016 (with Colin Clarke).
- “It’s Been 15 Years Since 9/11. How Has al-Qaeda Changed?.” The Washington Post’s Monkey Cage, September 10, 2016.
- “ISIS’ Lone Wolf Threat and How the West Should Respond.” Foreign Affairs, August 25, 2016.
- “Jihad's Civil War: The Battle Between ISIS and al Qaeda Simmers On,” Foreign Affairs, June 16, 2016.
- “Experts Weigh In: What Is the Future of al-Qaida and the Islamic State?.” Markaz (Brookings Institution), January 7, 2016.
- “Divide and Conquer in Syria and Iraq: Why the West Should Plan for a Partition.” Foreign Affairs, November 30, 2015.
- “Threat Analysis and Multilateral Counterterrorism.” Lawfare (Brookings Institution), October 4, 2015.
- “Al-Qaeda After Omar: Why His Death Could Hurt the Terrorist Group and Empower ISIS.” Foreign Affairs, August 9, 2015.
- “The Jihadi Threat to International Order.” The Washington Post’s Monkey Cage, May 15, 2015. Reprinted in Islam and International Order, POMEPS Studies no. 15, July 22, 2015.
- “Islamic State in Yemen: Why IS Is Seeking to Expand,” BBC.com, March 21, 2015.
- “Accepting al Qaeda: The Enemy of the United States’ Enemy.” Foreign Affairs, March 9, 2015.
- “Review of Jacob Shapiro, The Terrorist's Dilemma: Managing Violent Covert Organizations.” Perspective on Politics 12:4 (2014), 991-993.
- “ISIS' Gruesome Gamble: Why the Group Wants a Confrontation with the United States.” Foreign Affairs, August 14, 2014. Reprinted in Gideon Rose, ed., The ISIS Crisis (NY: Council of Foreign Relations, 2015).
- “The Near Enemy: Why the Real Threat to Israel Isn’t in Gaza.” Foreign Affairs, July 14, 2014. Reprinted in Gideon Rose, ed., Clueless in Gaza (NY: Council of Foreign Relations, 2014).
- “ISIL’s Bold Caliphate Roll-Out: Objectives and Risks.” War on the Rocks, July 8, 2014.
- “Obama’s Sensible Iraq Plan Is Likely Doomed.” CNN.com, June 18, 2014.
- “Collateral Damage in Iraq: The Rise of ISIS and the Fall of al Qaeda.” Foreign Affairs, June 15, 2014. Reprinted in Gideon Rose, ed., Endgame in Iraq (NY: Council of Foreign Relations, 2014); Also Reprinted in Gideon Rose, ed., The ISIS Crisis (NY: Council of Foreign Relations, 2015).
- “Review of Michael W.S. Ryan, Decoding Al-Qaeda’s Strategy: The Deep Battle Against America.” The Middle East Journal 68:2 (Spring 2014), 334-335.
- “After Disowning ISIS, al Qaeda is Back On Top: Here's Why That Isn't Necessarily Bad News.” Foreign Affairs, February 14, 2014.
- “Al Qaeda’s Syria Problem,” Foreign Policy’s Middle East Channel, January 23, 2014 (with Ariel Ahram).
- “Review of Wellman, James K. and Lombardi, Clark Benner, eds., Religion and Human Security: A Global Perspective.” H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews, January, 2013.
- “The Cost of Riding the Tiger: Hamas’s Road from Miscalculation to Escalation,” Geopolitics: The FPRI Blog, November 19, 2012.
- “Hamas' Miscalculation: Why The Group Thought It Could Get Away With Striking Israel,” Foreign Affairs, November 18, 2012. Reprinted in Gideon Rose, ed., Clueless in Gaza (NY: Council of Foreign Relations, 2014).
- “Same Song, Second Verse.” In a symposium on ten years since 9/11, The Journal of International Security Affairs (Fall/Winter 2011), 31-33.
- “Review of Richard Immerman’s Empire for Liberty: A History of American Imperialism from Benjamin Franklin to Paul Wolfowitz,” Political Science Quarterly 126:3 (Fall 2011), 504-505.
- “After bin Laden.” E-Notes, Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, May 2011.
- “Teaching About Jihadism and the War on Terrorism.” Footnotes 15:7, Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, October 2010.
- “The Question of International Cooperation in the War on Terrorism.” E-Notes, Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, June 2010.
- “Hamas and Its Discontents: The Battle Over Islamic Rule in Gaza.” Foreign Affairs, September 9, 2009.
- “Stretching Military Analysis to Include Asymmetric Conflict.” Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict 1:2 (2008), 192-194.