Hebrew Greek English
ruach pneuma wind, spirit, breath
ha-’adam ho anthropos human being
adam anthropos or Adam human being or Adam
ha-’adamah he ge earth
ha-’ish ho aner man (male human being; gender specific sense)
(pl: andres) husband
ha-’ishshah he gyne woman (female human being)
I. From the “P” Source, the account of creation in Genesis 1:1-2:4a.
Genesis 1:1-4: When God (H: Elohim; Gk: ho theos) began to create the heavens and the earth - the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind (spirit, breath; H: ruach [f.]; G: pneuma [n.]) from God sweeping over the waters - God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness.
26 Then God said, “Let us make humankind (Hebrew: ha-’adham; Greek: ton anthropon [anthropos]) in our image (Greek: eikon) according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.” 27 So God created humankind (H: ha-’adham; G: ton anthropon) in [God’s] image, in the image (eikon) of God [God] created them; male and female [God] created them.
II. From the “J” Source, the account of “Adam and Eve” in the Garden of Eden.
Genesis 2:4b-7. When the Lord God (YHWH Elohim; ) made the earth and the heavens - when no shrub of the field was yet on earth and no grasses of the field had yet sprouted, because the Lord God had not sent rain upon the earth and there was no human being (H: adam; G: anthropos) to till the soil, but a stream would well up from the ground and water the whole surface of the earth, then the Lord God formed (modelled, Gk: plassein) a human being (ha-adham; ton anthropon) from the dust of the ground (H: min ha-adamah; G: choun apo tes ges)), and breathed into [his] nostrils the breath of life (Gk: (pnoen zoes); and the human being became a living being (Greek: a living soul - psyche zosan).
Genesis 2:15-23: The LORD God took the human and
put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it. And the LORD
God commanded the human, "You may freely eat of every tree of the
garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not
eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die."
Genesis 2:15-23: The LORD God took the human and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it. And the LORD God commanded the human, "You may freely eat of every tree of the garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die."
. . . 18 Then the Lord God said, “It is not good that the
human being should be alone; I will make him a helper. . . 21 So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to
fall upon the human/Adam, and he slept; then he took one of his ribs and
closed up its place with flesh. 22 And the rib that the Lord God
had taken from the human/Adam he made into a woman (ishsha; Greek: gyne)
and brought her to the human (ha-‘adham). 23 Then
the human said, “This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh;
this one shall be called woman (ishsha; Greek: gyne), for out
of man (ish; Greek: ek tou andros [aner]) this one was
taken.” [This is the
first verse in which the gender specific noun: ish (man) appears; ishsha (woman) first appears in 2:22
and again in 2:23 – deriving significance etymologically [and socially?]
from the “derivation” of “ishsha” from “ish.” ]
Genesis 3:16-21: 16 To the woman [God] said, “I will greatly increase your pangs in childbearing; in pain you shall bring forth children, yet your desire shall be for your husband and he shall rule over you.” 17 To the human/Adam [God] said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You shall not eat of it,’ cursed is the ground because of you; in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life; 18 thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you; and you shall eat the plants of the field. 19 By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” 20 The human/Adam named his wife Eve because she was the mother of all living. 21 And the Lord God made garments of skins for the human and his wife (ishsha; gyne) and clothed them.