1. Class, today if you will listen,
This is about the star of our Solar System.
It's not Elvis, Madonna or Elton John,
Because our star is big, bright, hot and called the
2. The brightness is really something to
And its heat we must have, for life to be.
All the planets orbit around this big sphere,
And it's necessary for the lives we hold so
3. When talking about the Sun's description,
We can think about the Earth for facts, not
Its distance from Earth is one AU;
That's 93 million miles to me and you.
4. Now, the Sun has a really big girth.
Its radius is 100 times that of Earth;
Its mass is 300,000 times that of the Earth in
We can easily see the Sun as it lights up the
5. The Sun is made of really hot gas.
71% hydrogen and 27% helium make up most of the
The high temperatures break molecules down,
So, the atoms are free to roam all around.
6. The surface of the Sun is the
It's visible and with a 5780 K temperature.
The hottest area is known as the core,
Where the temperature is 15 million K or more.
7. Near the core is the radiative zone;
Here energy moves by radiation to find a new
Just below the photosphere is another area
Here gas rises and sinks and is called the
8. On the Sun there are clumps of gas that rise
This is known as granulation to one and all.
The hotter the gas; the brighter they look.
But, cooler is darker, as shown in our book.
9. The Sun has two main regions of
They're known as the corona and the
These areas are splendid and unique,
And both essential parts of the knowledge we
10. The corona, with a very low density, is the
And we can see right through this part of the
Also, in the corona there are coronal hole
These have cooler gases and are seen during all
11. Next is the chromosphere and known as the
It is a really thin layer that goes around the
Now, it's usually invisible against the photosphere
But, during a total eclipse, you'll see red if you
12. In the chromosphere there are spicules to
These hot, thin columns of gas put on a show for
The huge plumes of glowing gas, shaped like an
Are called prominences and really light up the
13. There is a process going on that sounds
But hydrostatic equilibrium is simple and never
The outward pressure push is in a certain
And the inward gravitational force has the same
14. In relating three factors of gas, there is a
It's called perfect/ideal and known to all.
The strength of the pressure is proportional to the
And this depends on how often and hard the
collision can be.
15. When converting hydrogen to helium, we need
Which causes nuclei to move fast and this is no
Their movement is so fast that when they
The atoms end up like plasma and are totally
16. Another form of fusion is the proton-proton
Hydrogen converts to create real energy, again and
Neutrinos are the produced particles with little
mass and no charge.
They can penetrate lead and aren't considered
17. Energetic particles travel near the speed of
These are known as cosmic rays and can really be a
They can be emitted by the Sun and from distant
And penetrate the Earth in short distances with
18. Solar seismology is the study of waves
moving through the Sun.
Their movement is similar to earthquakes but no
damage is done.
The surface of the Sun can rise and fall;
This pattern is detected as the Doppler shift by
one and all.
19. One strong feature of the Sun is its
It's 1000 times stronger than Earth's and will not
It can cause variations of intensity,
As well as, in temperature sensitivity.
20. The variations of intensity are indicated by
They appear due to cooler gases making darker
Another magnetic disturbance is known as a solar
It's a brief and bright eruption, that is not
21. The heat flow in a magnetic field can be
And from cooler gas prominences are produced.
Due to less pressure inside and hotter gas
Huge, glowing plumes, shaped like an arc, can
22. Solar wind is an outflow of hot, low density
It flows from the upper solar atmosphere and then
Carried along are small bits of material, lost from
When gas and blowing dust combine, the comet's tail
23. The Zeeman effect is a physical process of a
This causes the spectrum lines to split and to
They become 1, 2, 3 or more components and are
The electron orbits and light waves altered when
24. There is a solar cycle that can change from
year to year.
The activity of sunspots and solar flares is
Due to differential rotation their numbers rise and
And so the cycle period of 11 years is known to one
25. Now, between 1645 and 1715 there were few
However, before and after there were lots and
The solar cycle just switched off, a man
So the Maunder minimum is how the period is
26. Well, we're at the end of this rap and it's
time to go,
But we've learned that the Sun can really put on a
There are still a lot of things not really known
So, for now, just sit back and enjoy a beautiful