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Haverford College

HAVERFORD COLLEGE LIBRARIES
COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT/MANAGEMENT POLICY
AND BIBLIOGRAPHER'S MANUAL

(also available in PDF)

 

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION
            A. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT/MANAGEMENT GOALS
            B. PURPOSES AND ORGANIZATION OF THIS POLICY STATEMENT
II. DEVELOPING THE COLLECTIONS
            A. FORMATS AND KINDS OF MATERIALS COLLECTED
            B. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT MECHANISMS
            C. ACQUISITION PRACTICES
                        1. Monographs and Other Non-Serial Publications
                        2. Serials
III. MANAGING THE COLLECTIONS
            A. SECURITY AND SHELVING LOCATION
            B. COLLECTION MAINTENANCE
                        1. Collection Maintenance Criteria
                        2. Procedures for Lost, Missing, and Worn Items
                                    a. Lost
                                    b. Missing
                                    c. Worn
                        3. Weeding
            C. CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION
                        1. Preventive Measures
                                    a. Staff and User Education
                                    b. Environmental Control
                                    c. Generalities Regarding Conservation/Preservation Treatment
                        2. Treatment of Individual Items by the Bindery
                                    a. New Materials
                                    b. Older Materials
                                                i.   Enclosures
                                                ii.  Repairs--Treatment to Specification
                                                iii. Repairs--Single Item
                        3. Preservation Reformatting



I. INTRODUCTION

A. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT/MANAGEMENT GOALS

In accord with the College's mission of promoting "the personal and intellectual growth of students" and with the traditions of free inquiry and respect for the individual that characterize both Haverford College and the best liberal education, the Library acquires and makes available materials that speak, in descending order of emphasis, to the achievement of the following academic, social, and cultural goals:

1. Supporting teaching, coursework, and study.  The most important function of the Library is to provide the range of materials needed by faculty and students for work in courses taught at the College. The last three decades have witnessed important changes in the content of courses; a move away from textbooks and a corresponding move toward a variety of primary readings and independent analysis; the development of new areas of study, accompanied by an expansion of the range of course offerings; the shifting of disciplinary boundaries; the proliferation of independent study, honors, and research programs; etc. These changes have greatly expanded the variety as well as the volume of material a college library must collect in order to support the work done by students for class assignments and by faculty both for keeping up with their field and preparing to teach their courses.

If, therefore, the notion of "core collection," that is, of a relatively small, almost unchanging, collection of titles that every student would use, was at one time a useful one for describing what a college library provided, it is no longer by itself a sufficient principle for building and maintaining Haverford's collections. In light of the developments noted above, the Library's collection development practices and the collections themselves must be more flexible, must cast a wider net, than the concept of "core" would suggest. As a matter of course, the Library will continue to collect and retain "core" works, texts by authors and in subjects that have been traditionally important to a liberal arts curriculum, for, even though some of these may be used less frequently than they once were, they supply current course offerings with their genealogy. We must keep in mind, however, that the "core," difficult as it is to define its contents in the first place, is, like anything else, subject to history and will thus change over time; it will look different as new works and themes and ways of thinking cluster around, augment, reshape, and reevaluate it, as the very definition of the relationship between "core" and "periphery" changes, and as higher education both responds to and stimulates developments in the world at large. The Library's collection development/management decisions will inevitably, therefore, hold in tension diverse, even competing, claims on its resources in order both to maintain important ties with the past and to support the College's ambitious and changing array of course offerings.

2. Supporting student and faculty research.  While it has been something of an article of faith that a college library, unlike its university counterpart, did not support advanced research, such changes as those noted above, together with others in pedagogy and the teaching profession, have expanded the role of research at all levels of academic life, and they have done so to such a degree that the old distinction between materials that students and faculty need for class work and materials appropriate to research work is no longer so clear as it once might have been. Haverford's Library can certainly not become a research library in the university sense, but it must nonetheless collect not only a group of "core" or "standard" or "undergraduate" works but materials whose variety and depth will support those kinds of independent, research-oriented study associated most often, until the recent past, with research library collections.

Having said that, it remains the case that the Library collects and retains such materials as they are in keeping with the special collections the Library emphasizes or with the developing traditions of the curriculum and of faculty research interest. Since the need to support independent study and research requires, in addition to local collections, both efficient interlibrary loan service and resources that will help people identify and locate relevant materials, the Library bears the costs of borrowing from other libraries and of searching on-line databases. Because the Library bears these costs, Library staff make judgments about when, in individual cases, to pay for such services so that the needs of many users can be balanced within the resources available.

In addition to local collections and interlibrary services, librarians maintain a World Wide Web site in order to provide access to Internet resources relevant to student and faculty work. The Web site offers information about the Library, its policies, services, and collections, as well as links to resources chosen according to the same criteria as those used to develop local collections. The three libraries also include in Tripod's library catalog linked records for networked sites of interest to their users so that the catalog remains for research in the electronic environment the focal point that it was in the strictly physical.

3. Broadening students' experience and promoting personal growth.  By encouraging acquaintance with the wide variety of issues and possibilities that constitute human experience, the College seeks to promote students' personal growth outside the classroom as well as in it. Although the Library's primary purpose is to collect materials in support of course-related work, the emphasis the College places on extra-curricular intellectual, cultural, and social development prompts the Library very selectively to provide materials on topics of current or general interest.

4. Fulfilling responsibilities to tri-college and other cooperative collecting agreements.  In order to make available to students and faculty a pool of materials larger than it could provide alone, the Library establishes collecting and resource sharing agreements with other institutions, particularly with Bryn Mawr and, increasingly, with Swarthmore. Current cooperative collecting efforts apply both to the general and to special collections, particularly in the latter case to the Quaker Collection in its relationships with other repositories of Friends materials. At the very least, the libraries' sharing of a catalog and an approval plan vendor allows Haverford librarians to ascertain what materials are held or are being ordered by the other two colleges and to make acquisitions decisions accordingly. As of this writing, the three college libraries are discussing the possibilities for greater collection sharing through adoption of a shared approval plan, coordinated purchase of monographs and serials, and weeding of serial backfiles. It is not clear whether the interests of local users will be best served by going a step further and declaring official collecting emphases or sharing collection development staff among the three libraries, but the Library is open to all suggestions, and until three-college discussion of these possibilities resolves them librarians are only selectively duplicating titles held at one of the other two colleges.

5. Supporting the international community of scholars by preserving the written record of a) the activities of the Religious Society of Friends and b) the College's place as a historically important regional institution.  Largely through its Quaker Collection, the Library serves as an international scholarly resource. To provide context for the Quaker Collection and because the Quakers were so important to the development of the southeastern Pennsylvania region, of the US frontier and the west, and of various human rights initiatives, the Library collects materials documenting these topics.

6. Documenting the history of the College.  The College's archives are housed in the Library and contain College records and publications, artifacts, materials relating to student life, and anything else that qualifies as Haverfordiana. In addition, the Library collects works written by faculty and those by alumni that their authors donate and are not completely out of keeping with the guidelines of this policy statement.

7. Fulfilling responsibilities to the general public as a depository for government documents. Bryn Mawr and Haverford serve jointly as a depository for federal documents, selecting items from the depository list in areas consonant with the teaching interests of the two colleges. To discharge further its depository responsibilities, the Library's website provides access to federal, as well as state and local, government sites on the Internet; this Web page is organized, as the depository collection is selected, to link users with those sites most likely to be of interest in the bi-college context.

8. Preserving the evolving written heritage of the liberal arts and sciences.  In keeping with the statements above and even though the College may not currently be teaching in a given area, the Library selectively includes in its collections materials regarded as important documents of the developing human intellectual heritage.

B. PURPOSES AND ORGANIZATION OF THIS POLICY STATEMENT

To achieve these goals, the policy statement that follows sets guidelines for the development and maintenance of Haverford's library collections. Serving as a memorandum for librarians, who are daily responsible for the stewardship of the College's resources, and as a means for librarians to communicate with the campus community as well as with colleagues at other libraries, the policy documents the Library's current practice with respect to intensity of collecting efforts, kinds of materials collected, standards for maintaining the collections, and criteria used in making decisions about the collections.

In documents like this one, these general sections about collection development and management practice are customarily followed by detailed descriptions of the collections that support work in individual departments and programs. Such individual departmental statements describe course offerings and research interests, the scope and history of the collections themselves, and local considerations that affect collecting in the subject area as well as those several geographical, chronological, language, format, and other parameters which shape the collecting effort. The present document does not follow this custom because bibliographers have decided that creating individual departmental statements is beyond their resources and needs. The bibliographers do take responsibility, however, for keeping notes about their collection development/management practices so that they can pass such information along to their successors; moreover, they communicate regularly with faculty about the collections and with each other in order to keep colleagues abreast of developments in their selection areas.

In consultation with faculty and with colleagues in the Library at Haverford and at Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore, librarians keep this policy current, amending it as circumstances suggest and thoroughly reviewing it every few years.

II. DEVELOPING THE COLLECTIONS

A. FORMATS AND KINDS OF MATERIALS COLLECTED

The Library collects primary, secondary, and tertiary materials in formats that conform to disciplinary patterns of scholarly communication and take advantage of technological developments. Because it serves a small, residential campus and wishes to maintain the tradition of personalized communication characteristic of liberal arts education, the Library continues to think of itself as an important physical place for study and research. In keeping with its circumstances, then, the Library continues to maintain and purchase most materials in paper, first, because so many of the fields in which the College teaches depend on an archive of scholarly monographs; second, because alkaline-based paper is still the longest-lived, most dependable means available for preserving information; and, third, because the Library cannot yet depend on the commercial licensing arrangements available in the current marketplace for permanent archival access. The Library welcomes, however, the collecting opportunities offered by networking and digitization and will create and purchase access to networked, digitized materials whose content and format suit the teaching and research needs and practices of the campus. In addition to materials that the Library purchases physically or by access license, bibliographers are free to "include" in the collection any "free" networked materials they feel are relevant to campus interests; such selection decisions are represented by links on Web pages and in the library catalog.

There follow some generalizations about the collections by material type.

Monographs. The Library collects primarily currently published monographs. In addition to the approval plan and requests from the campus community, librarians use standard reviewing sources, e.g., Choice, Publishers Weekly, Library Journal, Women's Review of Books, Science Books and Films, and the New York Times Book Review, together with publishers' catalogs, bibliographies, and announcements or reviews in scholarly journals, to identify potential additions to the collections. For the most part, the Library acquires documented, scholarly monographs and scholarly editions of works rather than "popular" editions or works, major exceptions being made in the cases of "reading" copies of literary works and of works about topics of current interest; it acquires most titles from English-language publishers except in the case of primary or important secondary works written in the languages taught at the College. The Library relies on Books for College Libraries, subject bibliographies, and faculty advice for acquiring retrospective titles needed either to fill gaps in the collections or to build a collection in support of a new academic program.

The Library collects secondary and tertiary works in conformity with disciplinary publishing and research patterns; thus, such works in the sciences and social sciences will generally have been published very recently, while those in the humanities will in many cases be older. The Library acquires monographic material in cloth bindings and on paper that meets preservation standards; in cases when the price difference between cloth and paperback binding is significant, say, 100% or more, and projected use does not argue for acquiring the cloth edition, the Library acquires the paper edition and treats it in-house to increase its life expectancy.

Magazines and journals.  The Library holds a collection of almost 1400 titles, most of them journals basic to the disciplines represented by the course offerings of the College, together with a small, highly selective group speaking to general and extracurricular interests. Most titles are in English, exceptions being vernacular news magazines for use largely by students in language and political science courses. In addition to titles received in physical copy, and beginning with the Project Muse and JSTOR collections, the Library subscribes to groups of networked journals from Academic Press, American Chemical Society, and other publishers, as well as to individual titles that meet its collecting criteria. As a matter of policy, the Library is moving toward a time when most journals will be received in electronic form, moving in that direction as budget, the campus infrastructure, and the work habits of the community develop. The Library is currently adding electronic subscriptions for those journals it already owns and offers these subscriptions in parallel to the paper subscriptions, both because major publishers are not allowing it to cancel paper and receive only e-versions and because, short of such nascent projects as OCLC's Electronic Collections Online, the Library cannot yet depend on electronic archival arrangements. Beyond those journals to which the Library subscribes, the Library's website links users with free electronic versions of periodicals and news services throughout the world.

The Library is subscribing, also as a matter of policy and as it can, to electronic (preferably networked) journal indexing and abstracting services to replace the physical editions heretofore provided. Almost all areas that the College teaches are, as of this writing, covered by such an index, the notable exception being history. In subscribing to electronic indexes, the Library prefers a Web interface and looks toward the day when indexes are linked not only to the library catalog but directly to articles in those journals to which it subscribes electronically.

In addition to single titles and groups of titles from publishers, the Library in effect "receives" hundreds of journals in the form of the individual articles cited in its Wilson Index and contained in such other databases as Lexis/Nexis. The Library is thus able to offer a range of popular magazines and specialized legal and business publications that it would not otherwise be able to offer; in recognition of this fact, the three libraries will be putting in the library catalog records for all the journals in these "collections" so that users are aware, when they search the catalog for journal titles, that their contents are available. The problems, of course, with such full-text databases and full-text indexing services is that journals come and go from them and that they duplicate holdings because of the way aggregators package titles. The three libraries are studying how to minimize this duplication while continuing to augment local holdings.

The Library establishes new subscriptions largely at the request of faculty, with whom decisions to cancel are also discussed, and emphasizes in its collections either periodicals covered by the abstracting and indexing publications Haverford receives or those recommended by Katz's Magazines for Libraries. Given the inflation of journal costs and the proliferation of titles, the decision to add a title to the collection will in many cases require cancellation of another; thus, a major cancellation project in 1993 has enabled the Library to add many new titles in the last few years. Bibliographers meet formally to discuss the candidates for addition or cancellation and to agree on acquisition priorities. Except in cases when the content of the journal, e.g., art journals, suggests binding physical issues, the Library tends to keep journal backfiles in microform in order to save space.

The Library duplicates periodicals with Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore in the case of high-use titles and relies heavily on the excellent journal collections of those two libraries. As of this writing, the three libraries are exploring means for sharing journal resources more in order to achieve space savings and expand the repertory of titles available; means under study include reducing duplication of backfiles, especially in such cases as those of titles available electronically, and coordinating purchase of new titles.

Newspapers.  The Library has a small selection of US and European dailies and a small selection of domestic and foreign weeklies; it coordinates decisions to keep microfilm backfiles of newspapers with the Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore libraries. This collection is augmented by network access to current and back issues of the Philadelphia Inquirer and to the news sources available through Lexis-Nexis. In addition, the Library's website links to newspaper and news service sites around the world.

Microforms.  The Library collects very little in this format except journals, newspapers, and some government documents, relying on research libraries for loans of or on-site access to microform sets of books, journals, manuscripts, and other large collections of research-level materials. The major exception to this practice is made in the case of dissertations acquired to support the comprehensive collecting interests of the Quaker Collection. Because of a long-standing shortage of space, the science libraries keep the majority of periodical backfiles in microfilm, while at Magill similar pressures led the Library with the 1988 volume year to begin microfiche backfiles for approximately 200 titles indexed in Wilson's Humanities and Social Sciences indexes. The Library considers purchase in microform of materials other than periodicals on the basis of probable use, here defined as direct relationship to course offerings or to the comprehensive collecting done for the Quaker Collection. In the case of expensive microform sets appropriate to the Library's collecting interests, the Library may try to arrange for cooperative purchase with Bryn Mawr or Swarthmore.

Government publications.  Haverford has been a depository for US government documents since 1897; in 1974 Bryn Mawr became a branch of the Haverford depository. Together the two libraries select about one-third of the item numbers available. From those departments and agencies that publish in areas relevant to the teaching, research, and institutional interests of the colleges, the libraries typically select annual reports, statistical series, and substantial monographs in addition to the Congressional Record, publications of Congressional committees, House and Senate reports and documents, and publications of the Office of Management and Budget. Collection development decisions take into account the rich resources of other depository libraries in the Philadelphia area and the availability of documents on interlibrary loan from the State Library. Haverford receives many statistical publications on CD and through its Web page offers access to the full array of government information on the Internet.

With respect to US federal documents, the libraries at Haverford and Swarthmore have collections that overlap to a great degree. Within the limits of the GPO's requirements for depository libraries and as part of ongoing discussions about enhanced resource sharing among the Colleges, the two libraries are embarking on a plan to deduplicate their collections and reconsider their content on the principle that they are parts of one collection. Encouraged in this deduplication effort though the libraries are by the GPO's move toward electronic access, they proceed, nonetheless, on the assumptions that certain materials, for example, hearings, are easier at this point to use in physical form and that they should not sacrifice the archive of historic materials they have built.

Haverford shares the subscription cost of Bryn Mawr's microfiche collection of the official records of the United Nations, a subscription that does not include the publications of the UN's autonomous specialized agencies, and relies on Swarthmore's collection of sales publications. Haverford has a selective standing order for OECD sales publications and relies on Bryn Mawr for Pennsylvania state documents, for which Bryn Mawr is a depository.

Special materials.

--Manuscripts and rare books. In conjunction with its comprehensive, internationally important collection of materials on the Quakers and Quakerism, and in accord with its commitment to share with Swarthmore the stewardship of records for several Friends Yearly meetings, the Library collects the personal papers and records of individual Quakers and of Quaker organizations and coordinates the preservation of certain Friends organizational records. The Library collects other letters, diaries, personal papers, printed works, and manuscript materials in conformity with the goals listed at the beginning of this document; given their relatively high cost and the relatively small amount of staff time available for processing special materials, the Library acquires non-Quaker special materials in almost all cases to serve the immediate needs of course-related work and to expand the base of materials available for the study of Quakerism. Acquisition of special materials relies in large part, and especially in the case of the Quaker Collection, on donations. In expending the funds annually set aside for the purchase of these rare materials, a bibliographer who wants to acquire an item suggests it to the Coordinator for Reference Services and Collection Development, who consults with the Librarian of the College, the Curator of the Quaker Collection, and other interested parties about the purchase. The decision to acquire depends on a group sense of the importance of the item to the collections and on other claims that might be made on the rare book funds for that year. The Quaker Collection works closely with other repositories of Quaker materials, especially the Friends Historical Library at Swarthmore, to ensure preservation of Quaker documents.

--Haverfordiana.  Printed, manuscript, and artifactual materials associated with the daily life and work of the Board of Managers, administration, faculty, staff, and students of the College are housed in the College Archives. Almost all such material comes by gift or as the result of solicitation by the College Archivist, who periodically contacts campus offices to collect their publications. Since maintaining consistent communication with student groups is difficult, the Archivist and other librarians must be especially vigilant in order to collect material from them. The Library designates as Haverfordiana and houses in its circulating collection monographs published by Haverford faculty and those by alumni that fit current collecting interests.

--Graphics.  The Library very selectively acquires graphics materials to support its special collections, especially the Quaker Collection. The Library no longer purchases photographic prints with its own funds.

--Maps. The Library has a small collection of current world, continental, regional, and national maps, usually geo-political wall maps that can be used in classrooms; some historical maps, again for hanging and classroom use; and some flat maps that come from such sources as the federal government and National Geographic. The Library also very selectively acquires wall maps that are not geo-political to satisfy the needs of particular courses. Rare maps are included among various of the Library's special collections, especially the Quaker Collection, which contains Pennsylvania and regional maps of historic importance.

--Audio and video  recordings.  With the exception of sound recordings, the Library has only very selectively acquired non-print works, doing so usually for class use at the request of a member of the campus community or to support the comprehensive collecting done by the Quaker Collection. Now that more faculty are requesting more feature films and documentaries for class use, the Library is more actively collecting such materials and is also buying some feature films for extracurricular viewing.

--Digital media. Changes in pedagogy and the development of multimedia teaching tools, together with the proliferation of digital media and of networked computing, suggest that the Library, in cooperation with Audio-Visual Services, Academic Computing, and the Language Learning Center, more actively collect these materials. In most cases, materials requiring a computer for use have been collected in accordance with the campus's preference for the Macintosh platform so that they can be borrowed by students; now that the campus is supporting the PC platform, the Library is buying materials to be used on it as well. As noted above in the discussion of journals and journal indexes, strong preference for reference and research databases is given to those that can be networked rather than used on stand-alone Library workstations. Of necessity, this policy is revisited regularly as the technological environment changes.

--Browsing Collection.  Bibliographers stock a bookcase near the Loan Desk with "leisure reading." All volumes are paperback and are chosen on periodic trips to local bookstores; titles chosen include a range of reading opportunities in fiction and topics of current interest. Some of the titles duplicate volumes in the permanent collection and are put here to attract the attention of the browser, but most are current novels, genre fiction, popular treatments, and anthologies that the Library would not ordinarily hold because its acquisition priorities lie elsewhere. Although the volumes are marked, they are not cataloged or targeted for the security system; they circulate on an honor system. The Music Library has a similar browsing collection of popular music and the Stokes Library of science fiction.

--Reference works.  Bibliographers use the same criteria for selecting indexes, bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, compilations of statistics, directories, and handbooks as they do other materials. Although the Library does acquire reference works in areas the College does not teach, e.g., business, law, medicine, education, etc., the reference collection is tied primarily to fields in which the College offers courses. The collection is, therefore, in some ways less a "general reference" collection than one might expect to find in a well-equipped public or larger academic library. While reflecting the College's course offerings, the reference collection in many cases provides materials that are themselves more specialized, or that give access to materials that are more specialized, than the Library ordinarily collects in order to support the diverse research projects associated with courses and to alert researchers to a much wider range of materials than are available in the Library.

In the early 1970s, Bryn Mawr and Haverford initiated a project to acquire reference works that would ensure availability at one of the libraries of appropriate titles listed in the then current edition Guide to Reference Works. As part of this project, Magill and Canaday agreed to share some reference tools, particularly such serial publications as directories, one library buying the title either on standing order or every other year and then sending the superseded edition to the other. Today, duplication between Magill and Canaday is more likely to occur for reference materials than for titles in the general collection because the ability to refer quickly to such a source suggests immediacy of access as a compelling reason for holding it. Beginning in the late 1980s, Haverford began to strengthen its reference collection, and the room is now almost at capacity; because space is so limited in the Reference Room, many bibliographies, dictionaries, and encyclopedias are housed in the main stacks and do not circulate. Older and superseded editions of reference works that still have value also go to the stacks, while superseded editions of such works as directories are discarded if one of the other two colleges keeps a backfile. Because of the importance of the reference collection both to opening up campus and other collections and to orienting students to their research projects, bibliographers take special care to keep the collection current by weeding, adding new sources, and ensuring that the latest editions of sources are on the shelf.

As of 1996, the Library began to prefer reference sources that could be electronically networked, although this preference is informed by a knowledge of the Library building's role in student life; by the ways in which librarians teach research resources and methods; by judgments about the relative utility of print and networked electronic sources on a small, residential campus; and by the relation between the cost of and the value added to the source by its being networked. The Library offers a large array of networked journal indexes, the Encyclopedia Britannica , and on its website pages that link to both directory sites and individual reference works on the Web.

Exclusions.  The Library ordinarily does not acquire for its general collections materials of the following sorts but will do so at the discretion of bibliographers and with the advice of faculty in order to achieve the goals listed at the beginning of this document: dissertations, textbooks and lab manuals in humanities and social science fields, vocational materials, study guides (e.g., Cliffs Notes), juvenile literature, pamphlets and ephemera, "non-scholarly" treatments, raw computerized data (an occasional exception being US government information), superseded editions, technical reports, working papers, and books-as-art. Bibliographers tend to purchase conference proceedings and collections of reprinted essays when, in the former case, owning this kind of recent thinking on a topic is important and, in the latter case, when the collection brings conveniently together writing from scattered sources or when the collection is indexed by Essay and General Literature Index, which is offered through Tripod's "Wilson Index to Essays and Journal Articles."

B. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT MECHANISMS

Library staff (see Appendix I) in consultation with faculty make collection development/management decisions. Until the bi-college approval program began in 1973, faculty initiated orders for almost all library materials; since that time, librarian bibliographers have come typically to initiate the orders for the majority of what the Library acquires. The Library purchases items requested by faculty, whether identified from publishers' catalogs, advertisements, or reviews. Faculty requests that a bibliographer feels the Library cannot or should not acquire are discussed with the requester. In addition to advice from faculty, bibliographers gather information for making decisions about the collections by reviewing requests for titles or types of materials from other members of the campus community, by talking to Library users at the reference desk, by studying interlibrary loan requests and reserve lists, by preparing for library instruction sessions, and by studying circulation data. The arrival of a new faculty member or the creation of new courses and programs will often require the inauguration or intensification of collecting activity in a field; in such cases, bibliographers will expand their efforts to identify titles for acquisition by checking bibliographic essays, combing the footnotes of books and articles, and contacting research institutes and professional organizations in the field.

Academic training in an area taught by the College is a consideration in hiring bibliographers because of their departmental liaison functions. Bibliographers keep each other informed about interdepartmental areas and work together to maintain a basic collection in areas that are not part of the curriculum.

Allocation of budget. For the most part and except for certain endowments or gifts and for specific amounts set aside in the materials budget for purchasing rare books, manuscripts, sound recordings, musical scores, and science titles, the Library does not allocate its materials budget by selection areas or academic programs. Tripod does, however, track expenditures by subject codes, and bibliographers work with a weekly dollar guideline in order to ensure a steady flow of materials through Technical Services and to assist everyone in balancing collecting priorities. Bibliographers typically discuss among themselves the purchase of expensive items and the need for special collecting efforts in order to develop a common understanding of major or unusual claims on the year's funds. The Librarian of the College approves the purchase of items costing more than $200.

Cooperative agreements.  This document refers throughout to the long-standing role of Bryn Mawr's collections in the Library's collection development/management decisions. The cooperative relationship with Bryn Mawr has extended in the past from the approval plan to reference materials, major purchases, serial subscriptions and cancellations, and an informal understanding of collecting emphases. Although Swarthmore has not in the past played as big a part in the Library's collection development/management decisions as Bryn Mawr, Tripod has facilitated the exchange of such information as could enable closer cooperation. With new directors at both Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore libraries in the last two years, and because of changing local circumstances, conversations have started among the three libraries to explore how, in so far as is practical, they can treat themselves as a single collection.

Approval plan.  The Library spends about 40% of its annual monographs budget through an approval plan operated for Haverford and Bryn Mawr by Academic Book Company (ABC). The plan's profile selects books from those English-language university and commercial presses whose publications have a high probability of meeting the collecting needs of the Library in designated humanities and social sciences fields. In consultation, librarians from the two colleges maintain the approval plan profile, meeting as need arises to discuss changes to the list of publishers, the desirability of receiving selection forms instead of books in certain fields or from certain publishers, and revisions to the list of subjects and material types for which the libraries want ABC to provide approval service. Each shipment of books is displayed for a week at each library before bibliographers from both meet to divide between them the volumes in the shipment, volumes being assigned to one or the other campus on the basis of expressed faculty interest and the libraries' respective collecting emphases. Volumes not wanted at either library return to ABC; the libraries try to keep the return rate below 5%.

In certain subject areas, most notably the sciences, and for certain publishers, the plan brings selection forms instead of volumes. Titles ordered from these forms arrive on approval and are treated thereafter according to standard procedure.

Duplication. While the Library usually does not duplicate items within its collections, it is most likely to do so if an item is needed for reserve or is a standard work that will wear out with frequent use; in this latter case, gift books often provide the duplicate copy. In order to increase the size of the pool of locally available materials, the Library tries to keep to a low level the duplication of titles with Bryn Mawr, duplication occurring most predictably for reference works, titles for which demand will be high, titles in fields where both colleges have strong curricula, or titles that qualify as primary works or otherwise basic sources for an academic discipline. Haverford bibliographers' acquisition decisions increasingly take into account titles owned at Swarthmore, and efforts are under way to formalize deduplication and collection-enhancing policies across the three libraries. Estimates used during the conversion of the libraries' card catalog records to machine-readable form showed that Haverford and Bryn Mawr's collections overlap about 30%.

Gifts.  The Library gladly accepts gifts of materials that meet the criteria of its collecting goals and with the understanding that it may dispose of any items that do not meet its needs; in the case of books written by alumni, the Library will accept any gift except those completely inappropriate to the collections. Given considerations of stack space and the availability of staff to process materials into the collections, the physical condition of the gift, as well as its appropriateness, is an important consideration in the decision to accept it. Library staff acknowledge receipt of gifts but do not offer appraisals of value, referring donors instead to professional appraisers. Catalogers insert the donor's name into records so that reports can be prepared for the Development Office.

Although the Library usually disposes of volumes that are already held through a booksale, gift copies often replace worn stack copies, become added copies of high-use titles, or, in the case of gifts that duplicate materials already held about Quakers, are offered to other repositories of Quaker materials. Haverford librarians also consult with their counterparts at Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore to determine whether those libraries might want books that Haverford does not add to its collections. If possible, and especially in the case of substantial gifts, the appropriate bibliographer will inspect the gift before it comes physically to the Library in order to segregate those items that might be wanted and thereby avoid having to dispose of large numbers of unwanted books. In general and, again, especially in the case of substantial gifts, the appropriate bibliographer will inform other staff in the Library, including Technical Services, and in the Development Office about the source, nature, and location of the material and about the relationship of the donor to the College so that the decision to accept and the consequences of accepting the gift, in whole or in part, can benefit from the advice of all interested parties.

Course reserve.  The Library places on course reserve anything it owns, although rarely will a journal issue, a reference work, or other non-circulating item be thus treated. Although the Library usually places one copy of a book on reserve, it will place on reserve more than one in cases when course enrollment is high or when the nature, length, or frequency of class reading assignments suggests doing so; in such cases, the extra copy may be a faculty member's personal copy, a copy borrowed from Bryn Mawr or Swarthmore, or a duplicate copy bought for the purpose. When the Library puts multiple copies of a work on reserve for a science course, the Library will provide at most three and the department requesting the title the rest. In those cases when the Library does not own a title requested for reserve, it tries to borrow the volume from Bryn Mawr or Swarthmore to satisfy the immediate need; if the book is not available from those libraries, reserve staff give an order request to the appropriate bibliographer, who will treat the request as a rush. Reserve staff also notify bibliographers even when the Library can borrow a title so that they can decide whether to acquire it for Haverford; the decision to acquire the title is informed by knowledge of the professor's relationship to the College, whether the course is regularly offered, and the book's subject matter. In addition to monographs, the Library places on reserve photocopies of book chapters and journal articles made by faculty in conformity with the copyright laws; the Library itself does not make such copies.

Because of limited space and staff resources, the Library typically does not duplicate materials held on reserve at Bryn Mawr, and vice versa, even though Haverford students taking a course at Bryn Mawr often ask that the Library do so because they do not want to go to Bryn Mawr to do their reading. Bryn Mawr and Haverford librarians have agreed that they will grant exceptions to this policy only for 10-15 photocopied materials supplied by the professor for classes of more than 20 students in which more than 6 students are from the other campus and with the understanding that such requests for duplication are not handled until after the second week of the semester or as time permits. Over the next two years, the three libraries will be testing a system that makes reserve readings available electronically over the campus network. Electronic availability may render moot the question of physical duplication.

C. ACQUISITION PRACTICES

1. Monographs and Other Non-Serial Materials

Approval plan: Haverford and Bryn Mawr Colleges currently have a joint approval plan with Academic Book Center (16% discount). ABC provides titles according to the specifications selected by the two colleges. ABC was selected as the current approval vendor by a bi-college committee, who considered three vendors and their products. Periodic re-evaluations will be conducted to ensure that the colleges always work with the vendor that is able to provide the best service at the best price for our needs. 

Firm orders: For U.S. publications, the Library uses Yankee Book Peddler (12% discount) for most monographs that do not come on approval. Ordering from Yankee is conducted electronically through Tripod (other vendors will soon be making electronic ordering available as well). Fulfillment of orders generally takes four to eight weeks. The Library uses Borders (20% discount) for titles for the browsing collection as well as some rush and "hot" or popular titles. In general, Acquisitions staff place rush orders the day they are requested; requests from faculty and for reference works within a week of receiving the request; and orders from bibliographers within one to two weeks of the request date. These standards may slip during such particularly heavy ordering periods as the beginning of the semester or for orders that require extensive research. To help maintain these standards and ensure a steady flow of orders and materials to Acquisitions and Cataloging, bibliographers follow weekly spending guidelines.

For foreign publications, the Library uses several vendors: Heffers for British, Harrassowitz for German, Aux Amateurs for French, Puville and Marcial Pons for Spanish, and Latin American Bookstore and Libros Latinos for Latin American materials. In general, Acquisitions staff have found that using vendors in the country of publication gets orders here fastest and most reliably. Overseas orders are placed by email whenever possible. 

Non-book and special materials. The Library orders most video titles directly from vendors such as FACETS and Movies Unlimited. Borders is the primary source for music CDs, and most musical scores are purchased from J. W. Pepper. A large number of music materials are ordered direct by FAX, phone, email, and the Internet.  Dissertations are ordered from UMI. CD-ROMs are ordered from many different vendors, including local bookstores. For Quaker materials, Acquisitions staff often order directly from Monthly and Yearly Meetings in the US and abroad. Bidding at auction is a means of acquiring rare books and manuscripts. Requests are sent through Alibris and other Internet catalog aggregators for out-of-print books. Bibliographers and Acquisitions staff also purchase materials in person at Borders and other bookstores.

Rush orders. Acquisitions staff order rushes directly from the publisher and always by telephone except when a vendor or publisher requires the order on College letterhead, in which case staff fax it. Rush orders take an average of three to ten days to arrive. Occasionally, Acquisitions staff use the College bookstore or other local bookstores for rush orders.

Tripod order records. Staff use Tripod order records to show that an item is on order, to update its status, and to create reports for collection development and budget management. Tripod also gives access to the order records of Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore libraries. The Library retains the current and often the last fiscal year's orders on Tripod, deleting order records only when the system gets full and prompts that deletion is necessary. 

Claiming cycles. Rush books are claimed three or four times per year, usually at the beginning of semesters. Approval books rarely require claiming; second copies and replacements are claimed if not received within three months of ordering.  Firm orders from Yankee are generally claimed two or three times per year. Other orders are claimed on the basis of age and individual requests from bibliographers for specific items.

2. Serials

Firm orders. Vendors for serials and standing orders are chosen according to the services they offer, the economy of their pricing, and their ability to work well with particular publishers. Once a vendor is selected, package deals for pricing are subsequently arranged. Some publishers will not deal with vendors, in which case the serials have to be ordered directly from the publisher. After the orders are placed, journal subscriptions take an average of two months for the first issue to arrive. The turnaround time for standing orders varies greatly.

Domestic journals. The majority of domestic journals are ordered through Ebsco. Most science, technology, and medical titles are ordered through Harrassowitz because they do not charge a service fee.

Foreign journals. Most foreign science journals are also ordered from Harrassowitz. 

Domestic standing orders. Most domestic standing orders or continuations are ordered from Academic Book Center (ABC) because they do not charge a service fee and offer a small discount. All domestic continuations that ABC cannot provide are ordered from Ebsco or directly from the publisher. 

Foreign standing orders. Most foreign continuations are ordered from Harrassowitz.

Rush orders. Currently, most serials orders are placed through the mail, paper orders being necessary because the procedures for electronic ordering are not yet in place with vendors. The telephone is used for rush orders, usually directly to the publisher. Local bookstores (generally Borders) are used only for the current odd issue of a journal that is needed as a rush item. 

Claiming cycles for late or missing issues. The goal of the Serials Department is to check to see what claims are necessary every two weeks for periodicals and monthly for continuations. Tripod has a formula that changes records for serials issues to "late" after a certain number of days. Staff can then flag all late issues and initiate and print claims, most of which are mailed through US mail. At this point, electronic mail can be used to send claims only to Harrassowitz, although eventually this same capability should be available for the Library's primary serials jobber, Ebsco. 

Missing issues. The Serials Departments uses a variety of sources for filling in missing issues, among them U.S. Book Exchange and Ebsco's missing copy bank website. Some of these missing issues can be ordered on-line. 

Archiving issues. The Serials Department consults with the subject bibliographers in order to make decisions on archiving serials. Decisions are made to either store the journal as bound paper or on microfiche or microfilm. At the present time, electronic access to a journal is not a factor in these decisions. As the technology for electronic journals and printing of articles evolves, the Library will revisit this issue periodically. 

Tripod order records. The Library retains serials records on Tripod permanently in order to provide a history of payment for each title; price increase statistics generated from these records help bibliographers manage the serials budget and make collection development decisions.

III. MANAGING THE COLLECTIONS

A. SECURITY AND SHELVING LOCATION

Bibliographers assign each item a shelving location when they order it; in default of a bibliographer's instructions, Acquisitions staff do so. When a bibliographer wants to inspect an item before assigning it a shelving location, the location is assigned upon receipt. Bibliographers and Acquisitions staff use the following guidelines with the understanding that circumstances may suggest not doing so in individual cases. In assigning a shelving location, criteria 1 and 2 below take precedence; the default location for library materials is the main stacks. The catalogers have complete information, including security treatment, regarding the processing of items for various locations.

1. Works that are worth more than $700; that were published in Britain before 1750 or in the U. S. before 1850; that require special care (e.g., photographs); or that are sufficiently unusual in terms of binding, condition, or size to warrant the maximum security the Library can provide qualify for housing in the vault. Quaker materials have priority in the vault.

2. Works that are worth between $300 and $700; that were published before 1850; that contain inscriptions or autographs; that are sufficiently unusual in terms of binding, condition, or size to warrant some, but not maximum, security; or that might be especially attractive to the casual thief go into the semi-secure mezzanine of the Philips Wing.

3. Titles in mixed formats shelve by the predominant format. In the case of books accompanied by non-print materials, Bindery staff create an appropriate package so that the non-print parts can sit with the book in the stacks. Books accompanied by original photographs go to Special Collections, although in some cases the photograph only is housed there.

In the case of books that arrive with CDs accompanying, the science libraries separate the book from the CD and keep the CD at the service desk; in the other libraries, the CD is shelved with the book. In the case of non-music CDs that do no accompany books, Magill shelves them in the staff work area and the science libraries at the service desk.

4. Books 33 cm or taller are shelved as folios in the general collection; in Special Collections the size limit is 29 cm.

5. Published works on the arts, especially those in the visual arts, LC classes N and TR, are shelved in a separate "art collection" in and near the Philips Wing so that the images can serve a reference function for art classes. Books devoted to photography of the nude figure are kept in the locked area of the Philips Wing to increase their life expectancy; those titles that are not rare circulate; art "super" folios are in the folio case at the end of the Philips Wing, while rare folio art volumes are in the locked area on the Philips Mezzanine.

6. Video cassettes added to Magill's collections are housed in the video room on the third tier. When the Library acquires a video that costs more than $200, the item does not circulate. Audio-visual materials in special collections are housed with Quaker microforms. Videos acquired for the sciences reside in open stacks. Videos acquired for the Music Library are shelved in closed stacks with sound recordings.

7. Because the Library has such limited storage space, in general only large multi-volume sets or runs of old periodicals qualify for location in storage on the fifth tier.

8. In the case of electronic journals, the Library looks to publishers or such journal aggregators as OCLC to provide archival access.

B. COLLECTION MAINTENANCE

1. Collection Maintenance Criteria

In all their decisions regarding the repair or weeding of items already in the collections, bibliographers consider the following criteria in descending order of importance. In most cases, a number of the criteria will come into play to inform any given judgment.

a. Presence of other editions or copies of the same work.

b. Whether the item qualifies as Haverfordiana or has Quaker association value.

c. Relevance of the item to the current and foreseeable course offerings of the College.

d. Request for the item by a member of the campus community or for course reserve.

e. Availability at Bryn Mawr or Swarthmore.

f. Presence of other works on the same subject.

g. Physical condition, the in-print status, and the difficulty or cost of repair compared to the cost of a new copy.

h. Scholarly publishing patterns in the discipline, i.e. "datedness" of the item and whether it has been superseded by subsequent publications.

i. Relevance of the item under statements 3-8 in section IA of this policy document. Standard subject bibliographies and Books for College Libraries help to inform judgments of this sort.

j. Circulation pattern. In general, if a book has not circulated more than once in the last 10 years and pending its place in the collections under statements 3-8 in section IA of this policy document, it is a good candidate for withdrawal.

2. Procedures for Lost, Missing, and Worn Items

a. Lost

Borrowers pay for items that they have lost or for long overdue items that they have been billed for at either the current in-print price or the average current price for a title in the field as determined by Choice's annual price analysis. All lost or long overdue items also carry a $10 non-refundable billing fee; a $10 binding fee is added to the cost of paperback books. Bibliographers decide whether to replace the item or order a similar one based on the criteria listed in section IIIB1.

b. Missing

Items reported missing from the collection undergo the following procedures:

i. After changing the item status from "available" to "missing," Circulation Services staff search for the item regularly over the course of several weeks from the date the search is placed. Failing finding the item in this period, Circulation Services staff change the item status to "lost" and notify the requester.

ii. Every six months, in January and June, Circulation Services staff prepare a list of all items that have been lost for more than six months. They search for the items again and, in the case of those they do not find, forward a list of those still missing to the appropriate bibliographer, who decides whether to delete the record from the catalog or order another copy based on the criteria listed above. The bibliographer then passes the decision on to the Cataloging or Acquisitions staff as appropriate. Items that have been billed but have not been returned in 12 months are treated as lost and go through this same process.

iii. In the event that someone asks for a "lost" or "missing" item, Circulation Services staff alert the appropriate bibliographer, who immediately decides whether to order another copy. The original "lost" record remains for its full six months and follows the standard procedure outlined above. If the bibliographer decides to order the item, the new copy comes into the collection as an added copy.

c. Worn

Items identified as worn and needing repair go to the Loan Desk. Circulation Services staff, using a form designed for the purpose, then forward them to the appropriate bibliographer. Having decided on the basis of the criteria listed above whether to replace the item with a new copy, withdraw it, or repair it, the bibliographer returns it to Circulation Services for further routing.

3. Weeding

In consultation with faculty, bibliographers weed the collection in order to familiarize themselves with it, to keep it current with the College's course offerings, and to keep it within the limits imposed by a conservation- and housekeeping-conscious understanding of available shelving. Moreover, weeding has the benefit of allowing bibliographers to identify subject areas that need more attention, for example, those that need updating; this aspect of weeding is especially important for those parts of the collections which do not support the College's course offerings and hence do not figure in the consultation process between librarians and faculty. As part of ongoing tri-college discussions about resource sharing, bibliographers on all three campus will convene to talk about weeding practices appropriate to treating the three campus collections as one.

Periodic inventories of the stacks are taken using Tripod's inventory function. These inventories serve the purposes both of routine shelf reading and of alerting bibliographers to areas of the collection that need weeding.

Bibliographers weed individual titles in the collections regularly as new works, new editions of works, or lost, missing, or worn volumes come to their attention. In addition, bibliographers systematically survey large segments of the collections in their subject areas, doing so usually during the summer, when the maximum number of volumes is on the shelf. As they survey the shelves during large-scale weeding projects, bibliographers insert a slip (see Appendix II) in each book they identify as a candidate for weeding; the slip, on which bibliographers write the call number of the item, their own name, and the date the book was identified, alerts readers that the item is a candidate for withdrawal and advises the reader to register their opinion about this decision by returning the slip to the Loan Desk, whose staff pass the slip along to the bibliographer who placed it. When they have finished reviewing the LC class(es) associated with a subject area, bibliographers alert appropriate faculty and invite them to give advice on the items slipped, the slips staying in the books for at least six months. At the end of that time, staff remove from the shelf the items to be withdrawn and forward them to the catalogers for processing.

Because there are many fewer of them, bibliographers discuss decisions to cancel or withdraw serial titles on a case-by-case basis with relevant faculty rather than use the slipping process described above.

C. CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION OF MATERIALS

As stewards of the College's important capital investment in library resources, the Library staff follow practices and adhere to standards recommended by the national library community for the conservation and preservation of library materials. The Library's conservation/preservation program operates on a number of levels.

--All staff, permanent and occasional, receive training in the proper handling of materials.

--Through routine housekeeping, climate control, and the provision of proper equipment and materials for the housing and use of collections, Library staff seek to provide safe environments for them.

--Through library instruction sessions, displays, and enforcement of a no food/drink policy, staff educate users in the issues of conservation and preservation.

--The Library employs a full-time Conservator, who is trained in the techniques of repair, conservation, and preservation.

--Within the limits of its campus mission and in keeping with the goals outlined in this policy document, the Library gives conservation/preservation treatment to the items it houses.

1. Preventive Measures

a. Staff and User Education

Appendix III is the document used with all staff to inform them of the measures each can take in their daily work to care for and increase the life expectancy of library materials. Staff also help to educate the general user population with exhibits about how library materials can be damaged and by casually enforcing a no-food/drink policy. As funds allow and staff interest suggests, staff members attend conferences and workshops to improve their knowledge of conservation/preservation issues and techniques.

b. Environmental Control

Within the limits of its resources, the Library provides a safe physical environment for materials in three ways, namely, climate control, routine housekeeping and inspection, and provision of proper, well-maintained equipment. In addition to the routines outlined in Appendix III for the handling of materials, the Library systematically dusts the collections, cleans sound recordings after each use, and inspects items in certain areas for mold. It shelves materials or houses them in cases and cabinets appropriate to them and systematically cleans microfilm and other equipment.

In the area of climate control, the Library has much work to do before it can provide a stable climate that meets current humidity and temperature standards for all materials throughout the year. The task of creating such an environment is a difficult one in Magill because of the way the building is put together and is almost impossible in some other campus libraries. The Library is working with the College, however, to improve conditions for both materials and staff, and important evaluative and planning work has been completed to improve temperature and humidity conditions in the vault and in Magill as a whole, as well as to create a new environmentally controlled space in the Quaker Cage.

c. Generalities Regarding Conservation/Preservation Treatment

i. In that the Library is not a research library, it does not, with the exception of its Quaker Collection, engage in systematic, large-scale preservation treatment or reformatting efforts. Instead, it makes judgments about individual items as encountered, judgments based on the criteria listed in sections IIIA & B of this document and informed by the alternatives and principles described in the present section.

ii. Serials for which the Library keeps physical backfiles, photographic art books, and selected multi-signature musical scores are sent to a commercial binder whose work meets Library Binding Institute standards for materials and binding techniques. Although almost all other binding and repair work is done in-house, the Conservator's ongoing reevaluation of the cost effectiveness of in-house vs. commercial work for individual items or batches of material enables the Library to make the most effective use of its resources.

iii. Whenever possible and when the goals outlined in this document suggest that it should do so, the Library purchases monographs on alkaline paper and prefers to purchase in all other formats materials that meet the current national preservation standards.

iv. Although the Library accepts gifts largely with a view to achieving its collection development goals, librarians inspect all gifts, preferably before receipt, for physical condition as well as appropriateness. They do so both to identify items that need care before they can be added to the collections and to help them decide whether to accept the gift at all, physical condition being important particularly in those cases where the resources required to make damaged or deteriorated items usable might outweigh their significance to the collections.

v. The Library assumes that all materials it houses exist so that people can use them in the daily work of study and research. Whether for items in the special or general collections, therefore, and in so far as it is feasible to do so, all measures to conserve or preserve library materials are taken with users' needs and convenience in mind.

2. Treatment of Individual Items by the Bindery.

In its Bindery, the Library employs a full-time Conservator, one half-time assistant, and 2/3 FTE student assistant. The Bindery has the facilities and equipment needed to complete a full range of binding and conservation procedures. Treatments performed adhere to generally accepted conservation standards of suitability, durability, and reversibility; materials used meet archival standards.

In consultation with the Conservator, bibliographers decide what conservation/preservation treatment to give individual items in their collection development areas. The treatment decision involves parameters for the importance of the item to the collection development goals of the Library, its physical condition, its likely use, and the cost of treatment; consideration of whether and at what price the item is commercially available also weighs in the bibliographer's decision to treat it. In general, the Library treats items for their textual rather than artifactual value; in general, too, the aim of all work done in the Bindery is to stabilize items so that further deterioration does not occur with normal use. For most items, such treatment is sufficient to the purpose and, indeed, is all the Library can reasonably hope to achieve, given the number of items that need attention, the human and financial resources available, the level of use most items will see, and the poor physical condition many items are in already. The Library usually reserves the option of full restoration treatment for items in special collections.

As suggested by the immediately preceding sections, the Library's conservation/preservation program moves on two levels, first, through staff and user education and proper storage conditions, to create and maintain an environment conducive to lengthening the life-expectancy of all its collections and, second, through various repair and treatment practices, to slow the rate of deterioration. In most cases, items receive treatment as they are encountered in the course of routine work, that is, as they come into the Library by gift or purchase, as they circulate, or as they come to staff attention in the course of stack maintenance. The resources of the Library do not at this time permit systematic, larger scale conservation efforts in the general collections, nor does the Library's mission suggest them. In the case, however, of its special collections, and particularly the Quaker Collection, the Library does engage in systematic projects in terms both of routine housekeeping and inspection and of rebinding, deacidification, and, largely with outside funding, preservation reformatting.

Bindery staff provide collection conservation to specification and single item treatments, work of both kinds meeting generally accepted standards while recognizing the appropriateness of different levels of finish, strength, and longevity for individual items. In the case of collection conservation, items from the general collections are treated according to a set of protocols established by the Conservator so that all items exhibiting a specific type of problem receive the same type of treatment. This approach streamlines both the process of making treatment decisions and the training of Bindery staff. The number of specified treatments is large enough so that a wide range of materials and problems can be treated without resorting to methods that would be inappropriate for any given item. Work is carried out as much as possible in batches. Single item treatments are reserved generally for items in special collections, treatment decisions being based on an examination of each item, often in consultation with a bibliographer.

The Conservator both sets work priorities in the Bindery and trains student assistants or volunteers from other Library units to perform conservation/preservation tasks on a project basis. In general, the Bindery does "rush" work for reference materials, any item requested by a user or identified as "rush" by a staff member, or an item in urgent need of attention, for example, something that is waterlogged; all other materials going to the Bindery are worked on first-in/first-out. The work undertaken by the Bindery falls into two general categories, first, the treatment of new materials and, second, the repair, rebinding, or stabilization of older materials already owned or coming into the Library as gifts. The following two sections outline the Bindery's work in each of these areas.

a. New Materials

Those new materials routed through the Bindery are chiefly paperbacks, single-signature pamphlets, and musical scores. In the case of paperback books, treatment entails reinforcing their covers with commercially available rigid self-adhesive polyester "coverups" both to protect them from abrasion and to strengthen the joint area. The process is quick and inexpensive, with each volume requiring approximately six minutes to complete at a cost of about $3.00. The treatment produces a relatively durable product and is suited to those items whose expected use does not warrant the expense of cloth binding. The expected turnaround time is two days for non-rush items. This treatment does not affect the textblock, so that items may be clothbound at a later time if they begin to show signs of excessive wear. In general, paperbacks bought for the science libraries do not receive this treatment on the assumption that by the time they are worn out they will have been superseded in any case.

A paperback that will see heavy use or is of permanent value to the collection may be sent to a commercial bindery to receive a cloth binding. This treatment affords the opportunity to strengthen the structure of the textblock and provides reinforced endsheets, a cloth spine lining, and a stamped spine label. At approximately $7.00-$8.00 per volume, this treatment costs more than the reinforcement procedure described in the preceding paragraph; the expected turnaround time is about six weeks. Items needed on a rush basis can be clothbound in-house in a similar fashion, with a paper spine label, at a comparable price, with a turnaround of three days.

Items that are less than 3/4" inch thick and consist of single leaves, e.g., those that come in ring or spiral bindings, are stapled into commercially available pamphlet binders.

Musical scores and similar single-signature pamphlets are sewn into commercially available pamphlet binders. Again, costs are low, about $3.50-$5.00 per item, and the turnaround time is one to two weeks. Scores that consist of a number of single signature parts are bound in binders which include a pocket for the various pieces. Multi-signature scores receive the same treatments as other paperbacks. Scores that consist of multi-signature paperbacks together with single-signature parts are housed as a unit in a phase box (see below, section bi).

In the case of new titles that consist of materials in mixed formats or that, like star atlases, consist of unbound leaves, the Bindery makes protective enclosures (see below, section bi) in order to house all the title's various parts together whenever it is feasible to do so.

The Music Library staff insert all LP's in plastic and paper sleeves approved for archival use; frail record jackets are either protected with a plastic cover or replaced with a new one. Broken CD and cassette cases are replaced with new ones.

b. Older Materials

The number of treatment options for damaged materials is large, ranging from stabilization by the use of protective enclosures, through low-cost mending and recasing, and on to full conservation treatments involving extensive work on textblocks and bindings. Any of several options may be possible for a particular item. Based on the advice of the Conservator and on the collection development parameters outlined earlier in this document, the cognizant bibliographer decides which is the appropriate treatment in each case.

i. Enclosures

The basic level of treatment involves the stabilization of an item through the use of an enclosure. Slowing deterioration and loss while allowing for continued access and careful, non-circulating use, rather than alteration or improvement of condition, is the goal of this type of treatment. Books that have deteriorated sewing, brittle paper, or extremely worn leather covers and that, though important to the collection, are likely to see little use, are candidates for this type of treatment. Phase boxes, simple folded containers fabricated of thin acid-free board with a string closure and printed paper label, are the lowest cost form of this kind of protection. A phase box costs from $3.50-$5.00 to make and is suitable for items up to approximately 10" in height and 2" in thickness. When putting brittle books in phase boxes, the Conservator affixes a label warning the user that the item is fragile and needs to be handled with care. As mentioned in the preceding section, variations of this type of container can be used to construct enclosures to hold books and accompanying audio tapes or microfiche, unbound items, and gatherings of related but disparately shaped or formatted materials.

At the opposite end of the enclosure spectrum is the clamshell box. Reserved for those items which by virtue of their value or rarity deserve single item treatment, these cloth-covered boxes are constructed of heavy binder's board and provide extremely sturdy protection from handling shocks, shelving stresses, dust, and, to a certain extent, variations in temperature and humidity. Provision can be made for related items to be included with a primary one; for example, the original covers of a rebound book can be housed in a separate tray within the box. Costs for these boxes range from $20-$100, depending upon size and added features.

In between these two methods is the corrugated clamshell box for items that are thicker than 2" or taller than 10". This box is constructed from 1/8" thick buffered corrugated cardboard, folded and glued to form a drop spine style of box that is relatively inexpensive, yet sturdy enough to hold items which are larger or heavier than can be accommodated in a phase box. This style of enclosure takes approximately 45 minutes to construct, at a cost of $7.50-$9.00.

Bindery staff also create protective enclosures for manuscripts and art on paper. After being deacidified if necessary, paper items in badly deteriorated condition can be encapsulated in mylar envelopes; even though such items may not have been repaired, the mylar envelope sufficiently stabilizes and supports them to allow for safe storage and handling. The matting of works of art serves the same purpose. The cost of these treatments varies widely; in some cases, bulk treatment of similar items can result in savings in the treatment cost per item.

ii. Repairs--Treatment to Specification

The next rung up the treatment ladder in terms of complexity is the repair or rebacking of books. Making simple paper repairs using various mending tissues; tipping-in loose pages, signatures, or photocopies made on acid-free paper to replace missing pages; and tightening loose but unbroken joints are examples of treatments that fall into this category. Such work is generally low in cost if the number of repairs needed is small. Care must be exercised when deciding to send an item for this type of work; since, as a rule of thumb, mending paper costs about $1.00 per tear, the work involved is often not worth the effort for materials in marginal condition.

The rebacking of cloth-bound books from the general collection involves replacing the spinestrip of a book whose spine is loose or detached but whose endsheets and board attachment are still sound. The time needed for this procedure runs from 25-35 minutes, and the cost is in the $3.00-$5.00 range depending upon, among other conditions, the condition of the original cloth and whether the old spine may be reused as a title piece.

Books whose covers are loose or detached and whose endsheets are torn in the joint area are recased. The procedure generally involves disbinding, the removal of old spine linings and glue, sewing or tipping on of new endsheets, gluing on a new cloth spine lining/hinge strip, and recasing in either a new cloth cover or the reconstructed old case. New laser-printed paper title pieces are used where necessary. The cost of this treatment is approximately $7.00 - $12.00.

In cases where a volume's sewing has broken or is in danger of doing so, a couple of resewing options are available. Machine resewing by a commercial binder is a relatively inexpensive repair option, approximately $5.00-$7.00, which can be used in those cases where the text paper is sound and flexible. Volumes from special collections or books whose paper is weak or whose inner margins are narrow, however, require in-house resewing by hand, a process that can be time-consuming and expensive, taking anywhere from one to fours hours or more and costing $7.00 or more. The bibliographer weighs this cost factor against the importance of the volume in deciding whether to pursue this option. Phase or clamshell boxing is often a good alternative to resewing in those cases when a book's paper is too brittle to allow resewing or when the relative importance of the book does not justify the expense of resewing.

iii. Repairs--Single Item

Items selected for conservation work from the special collections are given this level of treatment as a matter of course. The bibliographers may also identify items from other parts of the collection which in their opinion are candidates for this type of more extensive work. Procedures used may include both dry and wet cleaning of text and binding, deacidification and mending of text, resewing, and rebinding in a variety of styles. In doing such work, staff retain as much of the original structure and materials of the item as possible and take care to match the materials, color, and textures of the original paper and binding when choosing repair materials. The Conservator documents the treatments performed and materials used and keeps a file of these treatment reports.

3. Preservation Reformatting

The Library undertakes preservation reformatting almost exclusively in the case of materials of research value in its special collections. Microfilming is usually financed by grants to address a particular segment of the collection and is done by commercial organizations. Photocopying of deteriorated manuscript materials onto acid-free paper is usually done in-house as they are encountered. The Library digitizes materials in-house or using a commercial service both to make research-level materials more accessible to potential users and to save wear-and-tear on the originals.

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