Professor of Psychology
B.S., Union College
M.A. and Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
My primary research area is pain and its inhibition in laboratory animals and humans. In the animal work, my students and I study the long-term consequences of pain during early life, the effects of environmental enrichment on pain behaviors, and the bi-directional relationship between pain and social interactions. We also study sex differences in pain and analgesia processes, including hormonal modulation of adulthood sex differences. Other areas of research include the experience of pain during athletic competition, and the relationship between the social emotion of empathy and the experience of pain in humans.