19th c. Caricatures of the Irish

Note the attention given to racial "types" in the prognathous or "simian" jawline, and the constant identification of both the Irish and the African as similarly constucted and inferior.

Camper's Facial Angles (1821): 1. tailed monkey, 42º; 2. orangutan, 58º; 3. Negro, 70º; 4. Kalmuck, 70º

Camper's Facial Angles (1821): 5. European, 80º; 6. Grecian bust, 90º; 7. Roman bust, 95º, 8. a case of hydrocephalus, 100º

"Time's Waxworks", Punch, December 31, 1899."Mr. P: 'Ha! You'll have to put him into the Chamber of Horrors!'"

John Tenniel, "the irish Frankenstein", Punch, May 20, 1882. "The baneful and blood-stained Monster *** yet was it not my Master to the very extent that it was my Creature? *** Had I not breathed into it my own spirit?" * * * (Extract from the Works of C. S. P-arn-ll, M. P.)" The quotation from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein identifies the Phoenix Park assassinations as the work of the Irish pariliamentary leader Charles Stuart Parnell.

Thomas Nast, "The Day We Celebrate: St. Patrick's Day, 1867)", Harper's Weekly, April 6, 1867.

James A. Wales, "An Irish Jig", Puck, November 3, 1880. Note the imputation of drug abuse as well as the suggestion that the Irish had helped misued what rightfully belonged to the United States and Great Britain.

thomas Nast, "the Ignorant Vote: Honors Are Easy," Harper's Weekly, December 9, 1876. This illustration depicts Irish immigrants in the north balancing the votes of the newly-emancipated African American in the South during the Reconstruction.

All images courtesy of L. Perry Curtis, Apes and Angels; The Irishman in Victorian Caricature (1971)

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