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Haverford College

Course Catalog

Geology: 2007-2008

DescriptionFacultyMajor RequirementsMinor RequirementsRequirements for HonorsConcentration in GeochemistryConcentration in Environmental StudiesConcentration in GeoarchaeologyCoursesDepartment Homepage


The department seeks to make students more aware of the physical world around them and of its development through time. The subject includes a study of the materials of which the Earth is made; of the physical processes which have formed the Earth, especially near the surface; of the history of the Earth and its organisms; and of the various techniques necessary to investigate Earth processes and history.

Each introductory course is designed to cover a broad group of topics from a different perspective. Students may elect any of the 100-level courses. Fieldwork is an essential part of geologic training and is part of all introductory courses, most other classes and most independent research projects.

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Associate Professor Donald C. Barber
Assistant Professor Christopher Oze
Lecturer Catherine A. Riihimaki
Professor W. Bruce Saunders, Chair
Associate Professor Arlo B. Weil (on leave 2007-08)

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Major Requirements

Thirteen courses are required for the major: GEOL 101 and 102 or 103; 202, 203, 204, and 205; MATH 101 and 102, or alternates approved by the adviser; a two-semester sequence of CHEM (101/103-104) or PHYS (101-102); GEOL 403; and either two advanced geology courses or one advanced geology course and an additional upper-level course in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, or computer science.

Additional courses in the allied sciences are strongly recommended and are required by most graduate schools. A student who wishes to follow a career in geology should plan to attend a summer field course, usually following the completion of the 200-level courses.
All geology majors undertake a research project (GEOL 403) in the senior year. Most students complete a one-semester project in the fall semester; a two-semester project may be undertaken with approval of the department.

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Minor Requirements

A minor in geology consists of two of the 100-level Geology courses, and any four of the 200- or 300-level courses offered by the department.

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Requirements for Honors

Honors are awarded to students who have outstanding academic records in geology and allied fields, and whose research is judged by the faculty of the department to be of the highest quality.

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Concentration in Geochemistry

The geochemistry concentration encourages students majoring either in geology or in chemistry to designa course of study that emphasizes earth chemistry. In geology this concentration includes at least: GEOL 101, 103, 202, 205; one of 301 or 302 or 305; CHEM 101 or 103, 104 and 231 (Inorganic Chemistry). Additional chemistry courses might include 211 (Organic Chemistry) or 222 (Physical Chemistry). Other courses that complement this concentration are: calculus, linear algebra, computer programming and computer modeling. Paperwork for the concentration should be filed at the same time as the major work plan. For course planning advice, contact Christopher Oze (Geology) or Sharon Burgmayer (Chemistry).

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Concentration in Environmental Studies

The environmental studies concentration allows students to explore interactions of the geosphere, biosphere and human societies. The concentration represents interdisciplinary cooperation among the departments of anthropology, biology, economics, English, geology, political science, and growth and structure of cities, and is open to students majoring in any of these departments.

The environmental concentration in geology consists of Geology 101 and 103, 202 and two other 200-level geology courses, 328, 397, one other 300-level geology course and 403; Biology 220; Chemistry 101 or 103, and 104; and two semesters of math, statistics or computational methods. Students starting the concentration in Fall 2006 must take Growth and Structure of Cities 175–Environment and Society. Two additional environmental courses outside of the natural sciences also are required: one addressing issues of planning and policy, and one that addresses issues of humans in the environment. The environmental studies Web site lists approved courses in these categories. Paperwork for the concentration should be filed at the same time as the major work plan. Students also should carefully consider their options with regard to study abroad in the junior year. Early consultation with Don Barber and the director of environmental studies is advised in the planning of courses.

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Concentration Geoarchaeology

The geoarchaeology concentration allows students majoring in anthropology, archaeology or geology to explore the connections among these fields with respect to how our human ancestors interacted with past environments, and how traces of human behavior are preserved in the physical environment. In geology, the geoarchaeology concentration consists of 13 courses: GEOL 101 or 102 or 103, 202, 205, 270, 328, another 200- or 300-level geology course, and 403: CHEM 101 or 103, and 104; two semesters of math, statistics or computational methods; either ARCH 101 or ANTH 101; and one 200- or 300-level elective from among current offerings in Anthropology or Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology. Paperwork for the concentration should be filed at the same time as the major work plan. For course planning advice, consult with Don Barber (Geology), Rick Davis (Anthropology) or Peter Magee (Archaeology).


  • GEOL B101 How the Earth Works
    C.Oze, A.Riihimaki
    An introduction to the study of planet Earth — the materials of which it is made, the forces that shape its surface and interior, the relationship of geological processes to people, and the application of geological knowledge to the search for useful materials. Laboratory and fieldwork focus on learning the tools for geological investigations and applying them to the local area and selected areas around the world. Three lectures and one afternoon of laboratory or fieldwork a week. One required one-day field trip on a weekend.
  • GEOL B102 Earth History
    W.Saunders, C.Riihimaki
    The history of the Earth from its beginning and the evolution of the living forms that have populated it. Three lectures, one afternoon of laboratory a week. A required two-day (Fri.-Sat.) field trip is taken in April.
  • GEOL B103 Earth Systems and Environment (Cross-listed as CITY B103)
    D.Barber, C.Riihimaki
    This integrated approach to studying the Earth focuses on interactions among geology, oceanography and biology. Also discussed are the consequences of population growth, industrial development and human land use. Two lectures and one afternoon of laboratory or fieldwork per week. A required two-day (Fri.-Sat.) field trip is taken in April.
  • GEOL B202 Mineralogy and Crystal Chemistry
    The crystal chemistry of representative minerals. Descriptive and determinative mineralogy, as well as the relation between the physical properties of minerals and their structures and chemical compositions. The occurrence and petrography of typical mineral associations and rocks is also covered. Lecture three hours, laboratory at least three hours a week. Prerequisite: Introductory course in geology or chemistry (both recommended).
  • GEOL B203 Invertebrate Paleobiology
    Biology, evolution, ecology and morphology of the major marine invertebrate fossil groups. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory a week. A semester-long research project introducing computer-aided morphometric analysis will be based on material collected on a three-day trip to the Tertiary deposits of the Chesapeake Bay.
  • GEOL B204 Structural Geology
    Three lectures and three hours of laboratory a week, plus weekend field trips. Recognition and description of deformed rocks, map reading, and an introduction to the mechanics and patterns of deformation. Prerequisites: GEOL 101 and MATH 101. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B205 Sedimentary Materials and Environments
    An introduction to sediment transport, depositional processes and stratigraphic analysis, with emphasis on interpretation of sedimentary sequences and the reconstruction of past environments. Three lectures and one lab a week, plus a weekend field trip. Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102, 103 or instructor permission. Recommended: GEOL 202 and 203.
  • GEOL B206 Energy Resources and Public Policy
    An examination of issues concerning the supply of energy and raw materials required by humanity. This includes an investigation of requirements and supply of energy and of essential resources, of the geological framework that determines resource availability, and of the social, economic and political considerations related to energy production and resource development. Two 90-minute lectures a week. Prerequisite: One year of college science. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B209 Natural Hazards (Cross-listed as CITY B210)
    A quantitative approach to understanding the earth processes that impact human societies. We consider the past, current and future hazards presented by geologic processes, including earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods and hurricanes. The course includes discussion of the social, economic and policy contexts within which natural geologic processes become hazards. Case studies are drawn from contemporary and ancient societies. Lecture three hours a week, with one day-long field trip. Prerequisite: One semester of college science or permission of instructor. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B236 Evolution (Cross-listed as ANTH B236 and BIOL B236)
    S.Gardiner, W.Saunders
  • GEOL B250 Computational Methods in the Sciences (Cross-listed as BIOL B250 and CMSC B250)
    Not offered in 2007-08.
    GEOL B255 Problem Solving in the Environmental Sciences
    Provides basic quantitative and numerical modeling skills that can be applied to any of the natural sciences, including geology and environmental studies. Students will learn fundamental quantitative concepts while exploring issues such as global warming, sudden catastrophes and the effects of steady flow of wind and water on Earth’s surface. Lecture/discussion three hours a week.
  • GEOL B260 Biogeography (Cross-listed as BIOL B260)
    Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B270 Geoarchaeology (Cross-listed as ANTH B270 and ARCH B270)
    D.Barber, P.Magee
  • GEOL B301 High-Temperature Geochemistry
    Principles and theory of various aspects of geochemistry including elementary thermodynamics and phase diagrams, an introduction to isotopes, and the applications of chemistry to the study of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Three lectures per week augmented by occasional fieldwork. Prerequisites: GEOL 202, CHEM 101 or 103 and 104 or consent of the instructor. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B302 Low-Temperature Geochemistry
    The geochemistry of Earth surface processes. Emphasis is on the chemistry of surface waters, atmosphere-water environmental chemistry, chemical evolution of natural waters and pollution issues. Fundamental principles are applied to natural systems with particular focus on environmental chemistry. Two hours of lecture a week and problem sessions. Prerequisites: CHEM 103, 104 and GEOL 202 or two 200-level chemistry courses, or permission of instructor.
  • GEOL B303 Advanced Paleobiology/Advanced Evolution Seminar
    Principles, theory and application of various aspects of paleobiology such as evolution. Seminar-based, with a semester-long research project or paper. Three hours of seminar a week and a weekend fieldtrip. Prerequisite: GEOL 203 or permission of instructor.
  • GEOL B304 Tectonics
    Three hours of lecture and a problem session a week. Plate tectonics and continental orogeny are reviewed in light of the geologic record in selected mountain ranges and certain geophysical data. Prerequisite: GEOL 204. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B305 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
    The origin, mode of occurrence and distribution of igneous and metamorphic rocks. The focus is on the experimental and field evidence for interpreting rock associations and the interplay between igneous and metamorphic rock genesis and tectonics. Three lectures and three hours of laboratory or equivalent field work a week. Occasional weekend field trips. Prerequisites: GEOL 202 and CHEM 101 or 103, and 104.
  • GEOL B310 Introduction to Geophysics
    An overview covering how geophysical observations of the Earth’s magnetic field, gravity field, heat flow, radioactivity and seismic waves provide a means to study plate tectonics. Also covered are the geophysical techniques used in mineral and energy resources exploration, and in the monitoring of groundwater, earthquakes and volcanoes. Three class hours a week. Prerequisites: GEOL 101 and PHYS 101, 102. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B312 Quaternary Geology
    The Quaternary Period comprises the last 1.8 million years of Earth history, an interval dominated by climate fluctuations and the waxing and waning of large northern hemisphere ice sheets. This course covers the many types of geological evidence, from glacial geomorphology to deep-sea geochemistry, used to reconstruct the ocean and atmospheric conditions that characterize Late Quaternary climate variability. Three class hours a week, including hands-on data analysis exercises. Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102 or 103. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B314 Marine Geology
    An introduction to the structure of ocean basins, and the marine sedimentary record. Includes an overview of physical, biological and chemical oceanography, and modern coastal processes such as shoreline erosion. Meets twice weekly for a combination of lecture, discussion and hands-on exercises, including one day-long field trip. Prerequisite: GEOL 101, 102 or 103.
  • GEOL B328 Analysis of Geospatial Data Using GIS (Cross-listed as ARCH B328, BIOL B328 and CITY B328)
    An introduction to analysis of geospatial data, theory and the practice of geospatial reasoning. As part of this introduction students will gain experience in using one or more GIS software packages and be introduced to data gathering in the field by remote sensing. Each student is expected to undertake an independent project that uses the approaches and tools presented.
    GEOL B336 Evolutionary Biology: Advanced topics (Cross-listed as ANTH B336 and BIOL B336)
    W.Saunders, S.Gardiner
  • GEOL B350 Advanced Topics in Geology
    A seminar course offered occasionally covering topics on areas of geology not otherwise offered in the curriculum. Prerequisites: advanced standing in geology and consent of the instructor. Not offered in 2007-08.
  • GEOL B397 Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies (Cross-listed as ANTH B397, BIOL B397 and CITY B397)
    D.Barber, E.Stroud
    A seminar course that encourages and facilitates environmental problem solving by interdisciplinary teams of ES concentrators. Coursework may take the form of service-learning (PRAXIS) projects. Students hone their research, collaboration and leadership abilities by working on real problems facing our community and the broader world. Students will provide oral and written progress reports and submit written summaries of their findings. Collaborative research projects also are possible. Three hours per week.
  • GEOL B403 Independent Research
    An independent project in the field, laboratory or library culminating in a written report and oral presentation. Required for all geology majors in the senior year.

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